T G+ F F

Technology - Protocols

Communications protocols allow different entities to communicate with eachother through a common convention of language. Some of the main Internet protocols that allow computing devices to interact with eachother over networks are described below. Reference is made to the Internet protocol suite that describes layers of communication protocols, including Application, Transport, Internet and Link; along with the OSI model of communications layers.

Application Layer

The following application layer protocols are used to convey HTML files, and files more generally across the internet. Application layer protocols sit on top of transport layer protocols.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The following application layer email protocols are used to convey emails between computers:

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

Post Office Protocol (POP3)

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

The following application layer remote access protocols allow users to login remotely to networked computing devices:

Telnet

Secure Shell (SSH)

Transport Layer

TCP and UDP are both examples of transport layer protocols, which sit on top of internet layer protocols.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Internet Layer

IPv4 and IPv6 are both examples of internet layer protocols, which sit on top of link layer protocols.

IP version 4

IP version 6

Link Layer

Ethernet is an example of a Link Layer protocol. It directly interfaces the networking hardware.

Fig 4. Loopy Tailed Trumpet Gazazz